Common Name: Canadian hemlock | eastern hemlock | eastern hemlock-spruce Family: Pinaceae Genus: Tsuga Species: canadensis
Identification Cones: Small 1.5-2.5cm ovoid cones with ovate scales and rounded top. Foliage: Flattened leaves with two broad stomatal bands on the glaucous underside of each leaf. Form: Broad conical shape. Excurrent
Wildlife Value Browse: Preferred winter browse by deer and moose. Cover: Thermal cover for whitetail deer and moose as well as cover for roughed-grouse, wild turkey, and fishers
Pests/Diseases Pests: Hemlock woolly adelgid Diseases: No significant disease or pest issues
Region of Origin Native to eastern North America
Figure 3. Green shading is depicting the natural range of Canadian hemlock -
Elbert L. Little, Jr., of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service - USGS Geosciences and Environmental Change Science
Site Preferences Naturally found on rocky ridges, ravines, and hillsides with relatively high levels of moisture. Can grow in partial to full shade. Low tolerance to deicing salt and winter wind exposure.
Cold Hardiness Hardiness zones 3-8
Figure 4. This is a map of the hardiness zones in the United States. Canadian hemlock has the potential to occupy a larger range than it currently does if the site conditions were supporting -
Size at maturity Height at maturity: 60-70ft. Diameter at breast height: 24-48in. Canopy Spread: 25-35ft.
Life expectancy a. Could reach 1000 usually several hundred. b. Regularly planted in urban areas and can live over 100
Wood a. Softwood, tracheids, abrupt transition species between early and latewood resulting in an uneven grain appearance b. Wood is brittle with many knots but can be used for pulp, light framing, sheathing, roofing, subflooring, and boxes